# Financial Ratio

Adjusted Earnings per Share is the Companyâ€™s net profit per share after adjusting for extra-ordinary/exceptional items.

The total value that a company will fetch upon liquidation (if its closed down), after settling all the obligations is called its Book Value. Book value of the company includes only tangible assets.

CAGR is the year-over-year growth rate (%) of an investment over a period of time.

This ratio indicates how long the company will take to repay the loan it has raised in debt market if its profit grows at current rate in the future also. So, it is better yo invest in the company that has low Debt to Net Profit, not more than 3.

It represents the duration (in years) taken by the company to repay the debt, in accordance with the cash generated from its operations.

DPS is the earnings i.e. the net profit after taxes distributed to ordinary shareholders divided by the no of ordinary shares outstanding. If two companies are growing at same rate it is better to invest in the company which pays higher dividend per share because of the higher dividend over the holding period.

Company's adjusted net profit allocated to each outstanding share is called Earnings per share.

This ratio explains how many days it will take for a company to convert its working capital into revenue. The faster (Lower number of days) a company does this, the better.

Free cash flow is the cash which the company generates from its operations after deducting the amount required to maintain or expand its asset size. Thus, FCF is the cash left for its shareholders by the company after investment in its growth plans has been accounted for.

It is the ratio of expected market price and expected earnings per share of the company during the next 10years. It gives us an idea of what the market is willing to pay for the companyâ€™s future earnings.

Industry price to earnings per share tells us, on an average, what the market is willing to pay for overall earnings in that industry. It can be used as a benchmark price to earnings ratio for the companies in that industry.

This ratio indicates the ratio of equity to debt the company employs to finance its operating assets

This refers to the amount of

**cash**a**company**generates from the**revenues**less operating expenses.NPM is the ratio (shown in %) of a companyâ€™ profit net of taxes and most importantly interest payments, to its Sales. It is advisable to look at the change in a companyâ€™s net profit margin over time and to compareÂ the company's yearly or quarterly numbers to those of its competitors.

Net sales can be calculated by deducting all the duties, freight and other expenses from sales of the company.

This is the ratio of a companyâ€™s working capital â€“ net of what the company owes to its creditors (suppliers) â€“ to its sales in days term.

Operating marginÂ shows how much profit a company makes (before interestÂ payment and taxes)Â on each rupee of sales. It is advisable to look at the change in a companyâ€™s operating margin over time and compareÂ the company's yearly or quarterlyÂ numbers to those of its competitors.

Return on equity shows the amount of net profit generated as a percentageÂ of shareholders equity.Â ROE measures a company's profitabilityÂ over theÂ moneyÂ shareholders have invested.Â Â

It is a technical momentum indicator used to chart the current and historical strength or weakness of a stock or the market, on the basis of the closing prices of a recent trading period.

The formula for its calculation is:

RSI = 100-100/(1+RS)

Where,

RS = [average of days (up closing)/average of days (down closing)]

The formula for its calculation is:

RSI = 100-100/(1+RS)

Where,

RS = [average of days (up closing)/average of days (down closing)]

Price to Book Value is the ratio of stock's market value to its book value. It gives some idea of whether investors are paying too much for what would be left if the company went bankrupt immediately. To get high returns, it is advisable to invest in a company which satisfies all the criteria set by MoneyWorks4me and which has low price to book value ratio.

It is the ratio of market price and earnings per share. It shows what the market is willing to pay for the companyâ€™s earnings. To get high returns it is advisable to invest in the company which satisfies all the criteria set by MoneyWorks4me and which has low price to earnings ratio as compared to the industry.

The term

**reserve**represents a part of**shareholders' equity**, except for basic share capital. Reserves are created from retained earnings and shareholders' contributions in the form of share premium etc.Return on Capital Employed is the ratio of net operating profit after tax to total investment made by the company. It gives a sense of how well a company is using its money to generate returns. Higher the ROCE, more efficient is the company.

It is the difference between ROCE and WACC, as a proportion of WACC, which tells the extent of value, created by the company.

The formula for its calculation is:

VCI = (ROCE-WACC)/WACC

Where,

ROCE: Return on Capital Employed

WACC: Weighted Average Cost of Capital

The formula for its calculation is:

VCI = (ROCE-WACC)/WACC

Where,

ROCE: Return on Capital Employed

WACC: Weighted Average Cost of Capital

Weighted Average Cost of Capital is the average of the costs incurred by a company for the various sources of financing that it has availed. In essence, WACC tells you on an average how many rupees you spend to service the capital your business is using.